Sunday, April 27, 2008

How to force Kerberos to use TCP instead of UDP in Windows Server 2003, in Windows XP, and in Windows 2000


The Windows Kerberos authentication package is the default authentication package in Microsoft Windows Server 2003, in Microsoft Windows XP, and in Microsoft Windows 2000. It coexists with the NTLM challenge/response protocol and is used in instances where both a client and a server can negotiate Kerberos. Request for Comments (RFC) 1510 states that the client should send a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagram to port 88 at the IP address of the Key Distribution Center (KDC) when a client contacts the KDC. The KDC should respond with a reply datagram to the sending port at the sender's IP address. The RFC also states that UDP must be the first protocol that is tried.

A limitation on the UDP packet size may cause the following error message at domain logon:
Event Log Error 5719

No Windows NT or Windows 2000 Domain Controller is available for domain Domain. The following error occurred:

There are currently no logon servers available to service the logon request.
Additionally, the Netdiag tool may display the following error messages:
Error message 1
DC list test . . . . . . . . . . . : Failed [WARNING] Cannot call DsBind to ( [ERROR_DOMAIN_CONTROLLER_NOT_FOUND]
Error message 2
Kerberos test. . . . . . . . . . . : Failed [FATAL] Kerberos does not have a ticket for MEMBERSERVER$.]
The Windows XP event logs which are symptoms of this issue are SPNegotiate 40960 and Kerberos 10.


Important This section, method, or task contains steps that tell you how to modify the registry. However, serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Therefore, make sure that you follow these steps carefully. For added protection, back up the registry before you modify it. Then, you can restore the registry if a problem occurs. For more information about how to back up and restore the registry, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
322756 ( How to back up and restore the registry in Windows

Important If you use UDP for Kerberos, your client computer may stop responding (hang) when you receive the following message:
Loading your personal settings.
By default, the maximum size of datagram packets for which Windows Server 2003 uses UDP is 1,465 bytes. For Windows XP and for Windows 2000, this maximum is 2,000 bytes. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is used for any datagrampacket that is larger than this maximum. The maximum size of datagram packets for which UDP is used can be changed by modifying a registry key and value.

By default, Kerberos uses connectionless UDP datagram packets. Depending on a variety of factors including security identifier (SID) history and group membership, some accounts will have larger Kerberos authentication packet sizes. Depending on the virtual private network (VPN) hardware configuration, these larger packets have to be fragmented when going through a VPN. The problem is caused by fragmentation of these large UDP Kerberos packets. Because UDP is a connectionless protocol, fragmented UDP packets will be dropped if they arrive at the destination out of order.

If you change MaxPacketSize to a value of 1, you force the client to use TCP to send Kerberos traffic through the VPN tunnel. Because TCP is connection oriented, it is a more reliable means of transport across the VPN tunnel. Even if the packets are dropped, the server will re-request the missing data packet.

You can change MaxPacketSize to 1 to force the clients to use Kerberos traffic over TCP. To do this, follow these steps:
1. Start Registry Editor.
2. Locate and then click the following registry subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\ Kerberos\Parameters
Note If the Parameters key does not exist, create it now.
3. On the Edit menu, point to New, and then click DWORD Value.
4. Type MaxPacketSize, and then press ENTER.
5. Double-click MaxPacketSize, type 1 in the Value data box, click to select the Decimal option, and then click OK.
6. Quit Registry Editor.
7. Restart your computer.
The following template is an administrative template that can be imported into Group Policy to let the MaxPacketSize value be set for all enterprise computers that are running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. To view the MaxPacketSize settings in Group Policy Object Editor, click Show Policies Only on the View menu so that Show Policies Only is not selected. This template modifies registry keys outside the Policies section. By default, Group Policy Object Editor does not display these registry settings.
CLASS MACHINE   CATEGORY !!KRB_PARAMS   KEYNAME "SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\Kerberos\Parameters"   POLICY !!SET_MAXPACKETSIZE EXPLAIN !!MAXPACKETSIZE_HELP PART !!MAXPACKETSIZE NUMERIC REQUIRED VALUENAME "MaxPacketSize" MIN 1 MAX 2000 DEFAULT 2000 END PART   PART !!MAXPACKETSIZE_TIP TEXT END PART END POLICY   POLICY !!LOGLEVEL EXPLAIN !!LOGLEVEL_HELP VALUENAME "LogLevel" END POLICY END CATEGORY   [strings] KRB_PARAMS="Kerberos Parameters" SET_MAXPACKETSIZE="Set MaxPacketSize" MAXPACKETSIZE_HELP="The Windows 2000 Kerberos Authentication package is  the default in Windows 2000. It coexists with challenge/response (NTLM)  and is used in instances in which both a client and server can negotiate  Kerberos. Request for Comments (RFC) 1510 states that when a client  contacts the Key Distribution Center (KDC), it should send a User  Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagram to port 88 at the KDC's IP address.  The KDC should  respond with a reply datagram to the sending port at the sender's IP  address.\n\nWindows 2000, by default, uses UDP when the data can be fit in  packets under 2,000 bytes. Any data above this value uses TCP to carry the packets. The value of 2,000 bytes is configurable via  this policy." MAXPACKETSIZE="Bytes: " MAXPACKETSIZE_TIP="Range is from 1 to 2000. Use 1 to force Kerberos to  use TCP."  LOGLEVEL="Kerberos Event Logging" LOGLEVEL_HELP="Windows 2000 offers the capability of tracing detailed  Kerberos events through the event log mechanism. You can use this  information when you troubleshoot Kerberos.  All Kerberos errors are logged to the System log." 

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